Vertebrate Pest Conference Proceedings collection


Date of this Version

January 1998


Repellents include chemical substances, visual displays, and sonic and ultrasonic deterrent systems. The use of electric shock also can be considered as a repellent category. Each of these categories is discussed, together with their respective utilities, constraints on their usefulness, and possibilities for future development. Economic considerations that may impede or expedite the development of new strategies are presented. Repellent effectiveness depends upon a complex of variables, including the palatability of protected and alternative foods, weather conditions, and the number of animals causing problems. Invariably, repellents are most useful when used as components of integrated pest management strategies