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Vineyard losses to birds are primarily due to two species; these are the starling (Sturnus vulgaris) and the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus). The majority of losses in the Central California Coastal region are caused by the starling, due to the large numbers of migratory birds arriving prior to harvest. Starlings are best controlled by a combination of pyrotechnic and acoustic devices. Linnets are most effectively controlled by trapping and poisoning. No matter what type of control is used, it is necessary to have sound knowledge of the birds' behavior and reliable personnel carrying out the program. An effectively run program can reduce losses by as much as ninety percent.