Water Center, The


Date of this Version



Water 2020, 12, 2890;



© 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license


Abstract: Kabul is one of the most populated cities in Afghanistan and providing resources to support this population in an arid climate presents a serious environmental challenge. The current study evaluated the quality of local Kabul Basin groundwater to determine its suitability water for drinking and irrigation purposes now and into the future. This aim was aided through groundwater parameter assessment as well as determination ofWater Quality Index (WQI) developed from 15 observation points near the city. The results of our physicochemical analysis illustrate that groundwater in the majority of areas of the Kabul Basin is not generally suitable for human consumption, and in some cases the concentrations of many contaminants are higher than accepted health standards or water quality benchmarks. The aquifer underlies an arid landscape, and because of this 85% of the samples tested are very hard while just over 13% are classified as hard. Groundwater in the Kabul Basin is typically high in calcium and magnesium and overall classified as a calcium bicarbonate water type. Overall, more than 60% of the analyzed samples had concentrations higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) standard of total dissolved solids (TDS), 10% in total hardness (TH), about 30% in turbidity and more than 90% in magnesium. The results show that based on WQI, without treatment, roughly 5% of groundwater in the studied area is unsuitable for human consumption, while 13.3% is very poor and 40% is poor quality water. Approximately 40% of the assessed groundwater has good quality and could be used as drinking water for future development. Groundwater in some areas shows evidence of pollution and high dissolved solids content, rendering these sources unsuitable for either drinking or irrigation purposes.