Date of this Version
Scientific Reports 7: 17067, DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-16737-z.
A field experiment was conducted to quantify pollen mediated gene flow (PMGF) from glyphosateresistant (GR) to glyphosate-susceptible (GS) giant ragweed under simulated field conditions using glyphosate resistance as a selective marker. Field experiments were conducted in a concentric design with the GR giant ragweed pollen source planted in the center and GS giant ragweed pollen receptors surrounding the center in eight directional blocks at specified distances (between 0.1 and 35 m in cardinal and ordinal directions; and additional 50 m for ordinal directions). Seeds of GS giant ragweed were harvested from the pollen receptor blocks and a total of 100,938 giant ragweed plants were screened with glyphosate applied at 2,520 g ae ha−1 and 16,813 plants confirmed resistant. The frequency of PMGF was fit to a double exponential decay model selected by information-theoretic criteria. The highest frequency of gene flow (0.43 to 0.60) was observed at ≤0.5 m from the pollen source and reduced rapidly with increasing distances; however, gene flow (0.03 to 0.04) was detected up to 50 m. The correlation between PMGF and wind parameters was inconsistent in magnitude, direction, and years.