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The critical period for weed control (CPWC) is the period in the crop growth cycle during which weeds must be controlled to prevent unacceptable yield losses. Field studies were conducted in 1999 and 2000 in eastern Nebraska to evaluate the influence of nitrogen application on the CPWC in dryland corn in competition with a naturally occurring weed population. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied at rates equivalent to 0, 60, and 120 kg N ha-1. A quantitative series of treatments of both increasing duration of weed interference and length of weed-free period were imposed within each nitrogen main plot. The beginning and end of the CPWC based on an arbitrarily 5% acceptable yield loss level were determined by fitting the logistic and Gompertz equations to relative yield data representing increasing duration of weed interference and weed-free period, respectively. Despite an inconsistent response of corn grain yield to applied nitrogen, there was a noticeable influence on the CPWC. The addition of 120 kg N ha-1 delayed the beginning of the CPWC for all site–years when compared with the 0-kg N ha-1 rate and for three of the four site–years when compared with the 60-kg N ha-1 rate. The addition of 120 kg N ha-1 also hastened the end of the CPWC at three of the four site–years when compared with both reduced rates. The yield component most sensitive to both nitrogen and interference from weeds was seed number per ear. Practical implications of this study are that reductions in nitrogen use may create the need for more intensive weed management.