Date of this Version
Cereal Chemistry, 81(1): 19-25
The relative effects of environment, genotype, and their interactions on the modification of Asian noodle quality attributes were assessed using 38 winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and breeding lines grown in replicated trials at three Nebraska locations in harvest year 2000. Noodle color was determined in both white salted and yellow alkaline procedures, and noodle textural features were investigated by producing white salted noodles. Significant environmental, genotypic, and genotype-by-environment variation was observed for nearly all initial and 24-hr noodle color traits in both types of noodles. Significant genotypic effects were observed for several textural traits, while significant environmental effects were observed only for noodle hardness and water uptake. However, among the noodle textural traits, the genotype-by-environment interaction was significant only for noodle firmness. High and significant phenotypic correlations were observed between color traits in the two noodle applications. Genetic correlations were of lower magnitude, indicating the possibility of breeding wheats specifically for various noodle color types. Strong negative phenotypic and genetic correlations were observed between flour protein content and noodle brightness (L*) values in both yellow alkaline and white-salted applications. Textural traits largely were independent of noodle color traits. When significant phenotypic or genetic correlations were observed between variable pairs, invariably similar correlations were observed with flour protein content. Noodle cutting force, cutting area, and final thickness showed strong phenotypic and genetic correlations with each other and with protein content. These variables largely were independent of noodle firmness and hardness, which were, in turn, more dependent on alleles at the wheat wx-AI and wx-BI (waxy) loci. Noodle firmness was greatest in flours from wild-type wheats; lines with a null allele only at the wx-AI locus did not differ from wild-type. Softest noodles were produced from lines carrying null alleles at both wx-AI and wx-BI, while lines with a null only at wx-BI were intermediate in softness.