Agronomy and Horticulture Department


Date of this Version



Published in Plant Science 180 (2011), pp. 562–574; doi: 10.1016/j.plantsci.2010.12.003


Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Used by permission.


The micronutrients iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) are essential for plants and the humans and animals that consume plants. Increasing the micronutrient density of staple crops, or biofortification, will greatly improve human nutrition on a global scale. This review discusses the processes and genes needed to translocate micronutrients through the plant to the developing seeds, and potential strategies for developing biofortified crops.