Date of this Version
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 44 (2001), pp. 2439–2451
Linear-nonequilibrium thermodynamics (LNET) has been used to express the entropy generation and dissipation functions representing the true forces and flows for heat and mass transport in a multicomponent fluid. These forces and flows are introduced into the phenomenological equations to formulate the coupling phenomenon between heat and mass flows. The degree of the coupling is also discussed. In the literature such coupling has been formulated incompletely and sometimes in a confusing manner. The reason for this is the lack of a proper combination of LNET theory with the phenomenological theory. The LNET theory involves identifying the conjugated flows and forces that are related to each other with the phenomenological coefficients that obey the Onsager relations. In doing so, the theory utilizes the dissipation function or the entropy generation equation derived from the Gibbs relation. This derivation assumes that local thermodynamic equilibrium holds for processes not far away from the equilibrium. With this assumption we have used the phenomenological equations relating the conjugated flows and forces defined by the dissipation function of the irreversible transport and rate process. We have expressed the phenomenological equations with the resistance coefficients that are capable of reflecting the extent of the interactions between heat and mass flows. We call this the dissipation-phenomenological equation (DPE) approach, which leads to correct expression for coupled processes, and for the second law analysis.