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The level of mycotoxin fumonisins in corn-based food and feed collected from Linxian County, a high-risk area for esophageal cancer in China, has been analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatographic coupled with evaporative laser scattering detector (HPLC-ELSD). A total of 104 corn kernel samples were obtained from local households, granaries, wholesale markets (central markets), and retail markets (stores and supermarkets). Fumonisin B1 (FB1) was detected in the samples from households, granaries, central markets, and stores, with a positive rate of 61.5%, 50%, 33.3%, and 17%, respectively. No fumonisin was detected in samples from the supermarket. The highest FB1 levels (0.30–3.20 μg/ g; mean, 1.42 μg/g) were found in samples from the granary, followed by household (0.25–1.80 μg/g; mean, 0.73 μg/g), central market (0.25–1.10 μg/g; mean, 0.51 μg/g), and store (0.22–0.34 μg/g; mean, 0.28 μg/g). Among the 80 corn kernel samples collected from local households, 18 of 24 (75.0%) moldy samples contained high levels of FB1 (0.28–3.30 μg/ g; mean, 1.58 μg/g), and 20 of 56 (35.7%) apparently healthy samples contained low levels of FB1 (0.21–0.82 μg/g; mean, 0.46 μg/g). As the central market plays an important role in trade of corn-based food and feed in China, a total of 115 cornbased food and feed samples were collected from the local central market. The highest FB1 levels (0.30–3.13 μg/g; mean, 1.50 μg/g) were found in feed, followed by unprocessed food (0.31–0.63 μg/g; mean, 0.47 μg/g) and processed food (0.21– 0.28 μg/g; mean, 0.25 μg/g). The positive incidence of FB1 in feed, unprocessed, and processed food were 53.6%, 33.3% and 17.9%, respectively. In conclusion, the results showed that corn-based food and feed from Linxian County contained low level of FB1 (<2 μg/g) in general, but efforts should be made to control the fumonisin contamination in corn kernels stored in granaries and households.