D. Lopresti, G. Nagy, S. Seth, and X. Zhang. "Multi-Character Field Recognition for Arabic and Chinese Handwriting." Summit on Arabic and Chinese Handwriting (SACH), pp. 93-100, 2006.
Two methods, Symbolic Indirect Correlation (SIC) and Style Constrained Classification (SCC), are proposed for recognizing handwritten Arabic and Chinese words and phrases. SIC reassembles variable-length segments of an unknown query that match similar segments of labeled reference words. Recognition is based on the correspondence between the order of the feature vectors and of the lexical transcript in both the query and the references. SIC implicitly incorporates language context in the form of letter n-grams. SCC is based on the notion that the style (distortion or noise) of a character is a good predictor of the distortions arising in other characters, even of a different class, from the same source. It is adaptive in the sense that with a long-enough field, its accuracy converges to that of a style-specific classifier trained on the writer of the unknown query. Neither SIC nor SCC requires the query words to appear among the references.