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Development and evaluation of deep -fried carrot chips as a source of vitamin A
Several experiments were performed to develop and evaluate a deep-fried carrot chip product as a source of vitamin A. In the first experiment, sliced carrots were steam-blanched, cooled, soaked in 0.2% sodium metabisulfite, and deep-fried in canola, palm, or partially hydrogenated soybean oil (PHSO) at 165, 175, or 185°C. Frying temperature, but not oil type, significantly (P < 0.05) affected the α-carotene, β-carotene, and total carotenoid content. Oil type significantly (P < 0.05) influenced all color values of the product. Increasing temperature lowered the redness value, which correlated with decreased carotenoid content, color darkening, and decreased hardness value. The best carrot chip product was that fried in PHSO at 165°C. In the second experiment, carrot slices were subjected to one of the following experiments prior to deep-frying in PHSO at 165°C: (i) dehydration/rehydration, (ii) soaking in different antioxidants, and (iii) fermentation with/without blanching. Carrot chips prepared using sodium metabisulfite as an antioxidant, without dehydration/rehydration and without fermentation, had the highest carotenoid content and retention, and the highest overall acceptability score. This best product from these experiments was then used for the next three experiments. Generally, the carrot chip product prepared with this method was acceptable to both American and Southeast Asian consumers, as shown by their ratings on overall appearance, flavor, texture, and acceptability. The carrot chip product, packaged in partially-vacuumed opaque pouches, was able to be stored for at least 5 mo at 0–1°C, 94–98°/a RH or 22–23°C, 31–45% RH without any significant changes in carotenoid, physicochemical, and sensory attributes. Provitamin A carotenoids present in deep-fried carrot chips were biologically available to gerbils, in that vitamin A deficiency was reversed by supplementation with a carrot chip diet which contained similar amounts of carotenes as a β-carotene-containing diet. The carrot chip product developed in this research most likely can be used as a vitamin A source for humans. ^
Agriculture, Food Science and Technology
Sulaeman, Ahmad, "Development and evaluation of deep -fried carrot chips as a source of vitamin A" (2001). ETD collection for University of Nebraska - Lincoln. AAI3034392.