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Minority experiences across Asian American ethnic groups and generational levels: Ethnic identity, bicultural stress, perceived prejudice, and racial consciousness
This study examined the construct of racial consciousness as an activistic coping response of Asian Americans to perceived racial and cultural discrimination. Since ethnic identity retention and bicultural stress are two variables in Asian American minority experiences, their relationships to perceived prejudice and racial consciousness were investigated. Differences across generational levels and Asian ethnic groups were studied to account for their influences on the four variables measured. ^ Using a quasi-experimental design, data were collected from 133 Asian American college students who represented two generational levels (first and second/later generations) from five Asian ethnic groups: Koreans and Japanese; South and Southeast Asians; Chinese; Biracial and Adopted Asian Americans; and Vietnamese. Comparative analyses showed Asian ethnic group differences; and that the first generation scored significantly higher than the second/later generation on the variables measured. ^ Two hierarchical regression models were conducted to determine the amount of variance accounted for in perceived prejudice and racial consciousness. A 4-step model showed that generational levels, Asian ethnic groups, ethnic identity retention, and bicultural stress were significant individual and overall predictors of perceived prejudice, accounting for 53% of the variance. Results from a 5-step model showed that generational levels, Asian ethnic groups, ethnic identity retention, bicultural stress, and perceived prejudice were significant individual and overall predictors of racial consciousness, accounting for 39% of the variance. ^ Two recursive path models of the four multicultural variables supported the observed data. In Model 2, ethnic identity retention had a direct effect on racial consciousness as well as an indirect effect on racial consciousness mediated by perceived prejudice. Bicultural stress had an indirect effect on racial consciousness mediated by perceived prejudice. In Model 1, ethnic identity retention had an indirect effect on racial consciousness mediated by bicultural stress and perceived prejudice, respectively. In both models, perceived prejudice was a strong mediator variable indicating that it is a central minority experience for Asian Americans. ^
Psychology, Social|Education, Guidance and Counseling|Sociology, Ethnic and Racial Studies
Kuo-Jackson, Yassi Phoebe, "Minority experiences across Asian American ethnic groups and generational levels: Ethnic identity, bicultural stress, perceived prejudice, and racial consciousness" (2000). ETD collection for University of Nebraska - Lincoln. AAI9962060.