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Kerala state in India, which is the first area of the country to experience the southwest monsoon, has a moist and wet climate. Kerala is in the extreme southwestern part of the Indian subcontinent; it borders Karnataka state in the north, Tamil Nadu in the east, and the Arabian Sea in the west (Figure 1). The entire state is one of the 35 meteorological subdivisions in India.
Kerala’s climate is tropical monsoon and tropical savanna, according to Koppen’s climatic classification (Figure 1). The state normally experiences excessive seasonal rainfall, with hot summers (except in the extreme southern districts like Trivandrum, where dry season and hot summer climate prevails). The three main seasons of the state are the hot season (March–May), southwest monsoon season (May– September), and northeast monsoon season (October– February).