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Precipitation is one of the climatic elements most affected by the presence of La Niña in Chile. An important precipitation deficit begins during La Niña events, from latitude 45°S to the north. This deficit prevails most of the year, with winter (April–September) being most vulnerable to these anomalies. The central region of Chile (30°S to 40°S) has negative anomalies, with precipitation values 35% to 100% below the climatologic annual average. These rain deficiencies in Chile are determined by the persistence of anomalies of anticyclonal circulation of middle and subtropical latititudes and an area of anomalies of cyclonic circulation in the sub-polar latitudes, from a north–south dipole of positive and negative anomalies of geopotential height in the mid troposphere. In Chile, La Niña usually produces air temperatures lower than normal, with deviations ranging from 0°C to -1°C. The social and economic impacts of La Niña events in Chile are serious. Agriculture, cattle and timber industries, energy, and industrial sectors are the most affected.