Educational Psychology, Department of


Date of this Version



Zulfiqar, N. (2017). Confirmatory factor analysis of Parental Authority Questionnaire: SES differences among Pakistani adolescents.


Copyright (c) 2017 Najia Zulfiqar.


Buri developed and validated Parental Authority Questionnaire (PAQ) sampling Western children and adolescents. The use of PAQ with non-Western samples demand attention for the validation of construct of parenting compatible with cultural values. The objective of the present study was to verify the factor structure of PAQ-Urdu version via confirmatory factor analyses among low SES versus high SES Pakistani adolescents within their collectivist cultural context. In the theoretical background of Baumrind theory of parenting (1971), data were collected from low-SES (n = 142) and high-SES (n = 145) adolescents. Findings showed that both groups of samples lacked acceptable model fit with the data. After deletion of items and use of modification indices, model fit improved to acceptable level for both low and high SES adolescents. However, factor loading and item consistency were poor for low SES adolescents.