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Porous alumina templates are fabricated by anodization of Al in an acid. The characteristics of the template, such as the pore diameter, interpore separation, and the periodicity of the porous structure depend on the conditions of anodization and the acid that is used as electrolyte. The variation of pore diameter and interpore separation as a function of anodization parameters are described. The use of porous alumina templates as masks to assemble nanoarrays is an important application and the deposition of Au nanodots on a surface of silicon is discussed.