In Vivo Study on Combined Toxicity of Metarhizium anisopliae (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) Strain ESC-1 with Sublethal Doses of Chlorpyrifos, Propetamphos, and Cyfluthrin Against German Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)
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The effect of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin strain ESC-1 alone and in combination with sublethal doses of commercial formulations of chlorpyrifos, propetamphos and cyfluthrin on mortality of CSMA strain of German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), was determined by conducting in vivo studies that included 3 bioassays. Spores of M. anisopliae cultured on SDAY media had germination of >90%. Based on bioassay 1, doses ranging from 0.5 to 300 ppm of chlorpyrifos and propetamphos, and 0.05 to 40 ppm of cyfluthrin were selected for bioassays 2 and 3. Cockroach mortality ranged from 5 to 20% for insecticides alone and 48 to 70% for insecticides + M. anisopliae in bioassay 2. In bioassay 3, mortality ranged from 15 to 60% for insecticides and 57.5 to 92.5% for insecticides + M. anisopliae. Percentage of cockroach mortality resulting from insecticide +M. anisopliae combinations was significantly higher than insecticide alone. Mortality was also significantly higher in certain insecticide + M. anisopliae combinations than M. anisopliae alone. There was no significant interaction between M. anisopliae and insecticides with their concentrations in bioassay 2, indicating an additive effect. But in bioassay 3, a significant interaction was observed when M. anisopliae was combined with multiple insecticide concentrations. The interaction indicated an additive effect for chlorpyrifos and cyfluthrin, and a synergistic effect for propetamphos. There were significant differences in LT50 among various treatment combinations. M. anisopliae alone or insecticide + M. anisopliae combinations did not affect body weight in treated German cockroaches.