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Brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and other salmonids in Appalachia typically inhabit headwater watersheds, where food resources may limit growth. We monitored the feeding trends of a brook trout population in central Appalachia over the course of 2 years to determine variation in feeding intensity and important prey items. One terrestrial beetle family, Scarabaeidae, provided a disproportionate amount of energy during the only time of year when brook trout were feeding substantially above maintenance ration. Scarab beetles contributed 39.6% of all energy consumed during May and June of both years, though the number of fish with one or more scarabaeids present in the stomach varied by month (22.2-51.7%). The species composition of scarab beetles consumed suggested that four species are of particular importance. Our findings imply that scarabaeids represent a considerably important prey taxon for brook trout in the region. Considering the foraging habits of the scarabaeid species in question, the phenomenon we witnessed probably occurs throughout Appalachia.