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The premise of the Endangered Species Act is that all wildlife are valuable natural resources and the extinction of species in the name of progress must be halted. To achieve this end, Congress requires all Federal agencies to consult with the Fish and Wildlife Service when any of their programs or projects affect a listed endangered or threatened species. Problems of special interest to this conference are those that project an endangered or threatened species indirect conflict with man. Undoubtedly the most publicized of these conflicts has involved the threatened timber wolf and the livestock producers of northern Minnesota. This long-term battle continues on the ground and in the courts. Of perhaps special note is the fact that the courts have typically sided with the Congressional intent of the Endangered Species Act, even when the Fish and Wildlife Service supported limited trapping and hunting of wolves.