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As the trend towards urbanization escalates, the United States is rapidly becoming a nation of non-farmers and suburban residents. Consequently, the conflicts between residents and wildlife species are increasing, while the interest in urban wildlife and backyard habitat is growing. These ' trends, coupled with changes in pesticide regulations, a shortage of trained professionals and relic legislation, create a complex and paradoxical situation for residents and professionals in the area of urban wildlife management. The future of wildlife in the urban environment will depend on our ability to convince and educate wildlife managers, citizens and legislators about the need for control as well as enhancement of urban animal species.