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Root and crown rot--winterkill complex is discussed, including nature of the complex, symptoms, control, and management rationale. Root and crown rot of winter wheat is an interrelated disease complex caused by the interaction of infection of roots and crowns by Bipolaris sorokiniana and/or Fusarium graminearum and harsh winter conditions. It is an insidious, persistent and inconspicuous disease complex that reduces wheat yields each year. In extreme cases, entire fields or large areas within fields are killed. The ultimate effect is loss of stands, poor plant vigor, reduced yield and lower grain quality.