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In actual practice certain phases of integrated pest management (IPM), i.e., the utilization of a multitude of control methods, have always played a role in vertebrate pest management. For example, sanitation and rodent-proofing have always been viewed as most important aspects of rat control. IPM is a necessity in vertebrate pest control because total dependence on lethal chemical-control methods is not possible with many animal pest problems. Toxic chemicals, when used alone, are often not sufficiently effective as a single management practice.