Date of this Version
Research at the Pennsylvania State University was directed towards finding effective repellents to control damage caused by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and to develop a low-cost alternative to the traditional 2.4 m woven wire barrier fence, considered to be deer-proof, but too expensive for mgt agricultural uses. Fourteen repellents were screened and 9 were found to be more effective than the others. These 9 repellents were further investigated under semi-field conditions and only 1 repellent was found to be consistent in reducing deer feeding. A vertical electric deer fence was effective in excluding deer at field sites containing alfalfa, small grains, vegetables, orchards and young coniferous trees. This fence offers producers a low-cost alternative to the 2.4 m woven wire fence.