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The concept of managing natural resources to maintain and restore biodiversity has received increased emphasis from resource managers in recent years. Many state and federal land management agencies have incorporated biodiversity concepts into management plans and programs. Active management of both wildlife habitats and populations must increase as natural systems are simplified and fragmented by human activities. Wildlife damage management programs can be compatible with ecosystem management and maintenance of biodiversity. Species that are widespread but rare and, in particular, species with small and isolated populations remain at risk from environmental and genetic changes, competition, parasitism, and predation. There are many examples of wildlife damage management programs that directly protect and enhance rare plant and animal populations and promote biodiversity. There will be an increased need for wildlife professionals with expertise in wildlife damage management as state and federal agencies take a more active role in managing natural resources to maintain local and regional biodiversity.