Interdisciplinary Conference on Human Trafficking at the University of Nebraska


Date of this Version



Presentation for 2011 Interdisciplinary Conference on Human Trafficking, September 29 - October 1, 2011, Lincoln, Nebraska. Copyright © 2011 Gundelina A. Velazco.


This research looked at a growing population in the world today - that of children who have been trafficked, rescued, and now back in the community, severely broken. They could be in danger of re-victimization if adequate measures were not taken to protect them. The research aimed to find out what it takes for reintegration to be successful, or for the survivor to be able to resume living in society as an empowered and productive individual with a sense of self-worth and confidence. Using the exploratory research design, Phase I of the research explored the community’s perceptions of successful reintegration. The respondents included 67 children who were traffic survivors, 16 parents, 9 NGOs, 2 government organizations, and 5 government authorities from 11 areas of southern Philippines, which is the back door for trafficking of children to neighbouring countries. The gathered perceptions were content analysed into 62 general categories. These categories of perceptions of successful reintegration served as the basis for Phase 2, which was construction of a tool to measure degree of success of reintegration. Phase 2 also included determining the validity and reliability of the Reintegration Tool. The items of the tool were validated by expert judges. Another group of 55 reintegrated children and their significant other from 11 areas of southern Philippines were administered the constructed tool in order to determine rater reliability. A moderately high rater reliability was demonstrated. The tool or the process used can be used by NGOs as well as government agencies working toward reintegration of their clients and wanting to determine whether their efforts have been effective. Phase 3 is implementing a reintegration program with ten reintegrated girls based on the categories and items of the Reintegration Tool. A case study of one of the girls is presented.

This is a report on: 1. the survey of the relevant populations’ perceived indicators of successful reintegration of traffic survivors; 2. the development of an instrument to measure level of success of reintegration, based on the survey results; 3. the field-testing of the draft instrument with another relevant population to determine its reliability and validity; and 4. initiation of a reintegration philosophy and program based on the indicators in the instrument.

The reintegration program consists of implementing the indicators in the instrument in helping the reintegrated girls of Love146, a US-based NGO that works toward the abolition of child sex exploitation and trafficking and the restoration of the victims. This report includes a case study of one of these girls, wherein the instrument was also used to evaluate the reintegration assistance given her and her family.

The objectives of the work reported here are:
1. To find out what the relevant populations perceive as indicators of successful reintegration of traffic survivors ;
2. To draft an instrument measuring success of reintegration, based on the gathered perceptions;
3. To field-test the instrument in order to establish reliability and validity; and
4. To initiate a program of reintegration with reintegrated girls based on the indicators in the instrument, and to evaluate the program using the instrument.