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Our experiment demonstrated that black-tailed prairie dogs (Cynomys ludovicianus) will consume rodenticide underground in their burrows. We demonstrated the efficacy of Rozol Pocket Gopher Bait containing the active ingredient chlorophacione (0.005%) 21 days post treatment for managing black-tailed prairie dogs in their burrows in Kansas. Active prairie dog burrows were reduced 90% when 54 grams of Rozol was placed in the burrow without prebaiting. Results indicate use of this toxicant when placed in the burrow can be an effective means of managing prairie dogs. In-burrow application of rodenticides for black-tailed prairie dog management should markedly reduce exposure of birds to toxic bait.