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Guided by their extensive field experience in conservation research and practice, Monique Borgerhoff Mulder and Peter Coppolillo offer an encompassing introduction to some of the most pervasive and incendiary social and biological science debates concerning biodiversity conservation. As environmental conservation initiatives have expanded throughout the globe in recent decades, scholars primarily from the social sciences have begun to critically examine the often fraught social dynamics of such conservation. This body of work has ignited a series of fierce debates among those with a concern for local peoples who have found themselves marginalized by conservation, those with a concern for rapidly diminishing biodiversity, and those with a concern for both. Until recently much of the expansive literature on the subject is deeply mired in one position or another, highly complicating the task of establishing the broader context and underlying assumptions of the debate. Borgerhoff Mulder and Coppolillo contribute significantly to such a gap by synthesizing a wide array of theoretical and practical resources, spanning social and biological science disciplines as well as policy-oriented and academic publications.