Date of this Version
A number of bird species may cause nuisance or damage problems in urban areas. These include European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), house sparrows (Passer domesticus), feral pigeons or rock doves (Columba livia), and others. Recently, increasing numbers of resident Canada geese (Branta canadensis) have resulted in conflicts in urban areas, particularly around golf courses, parks, and developments that have lakes or ponds surrounded by grass. Bird damage management programs are increasingly expected to provide effective solutions in a humane and socially acceptable way. Management approaches and products are affected by clientele preferences and public opinion nationwide, which, along with small markets, have contributed to the loss of some products but the availability of some new ones. Such trends emphasize the need in management programs to understand the problem species, situation, and control options. Specific application of various techniques will vary depending on the type of problem, bird species implicated, and other factors.