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The shape of the facial carina in Anastrepha is discussed. Although taxonomically useful, the protrudent form probably occurs by convergence in different species groups. Two species groups in which the carina is usually produced are revised. The benjamini species group includes: benjamini Lima (from southeastern Brazil), gigantea Stone (from Panama), magna, n. sp. (from Colombia and Venezuela), and superflua Stone (from Panama). Host data for this group are limited to only one record of benjamini from a species of Pouteria (Sapotaceae). The pallidipennis complex, which is included in the pseudoparallela species group, is recognized to include: amnis Stone (from southern Brazil and possibly Trinidad), curitis stone (from Colombia, Peru, anti northern Brazil), pallida, n. sp. (from Panama), pallidipennis Greene (from Colombia and Venezuela),and velezi, n. sp. (from Colombia). These species breed in fruit of Passiflora (Passifloraceae) (P. ambigua Hemsl., ligularis juss., nitida H.B.K., quadrangularis L., and seemannii Griseb.). The relationships of these Anastrepha species are discussed, and diagnoses and illustrations are provided to permit their identification. A neotype is designated for A. corrsobrina (Loew), and the identity of this species is clarified.