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The Neotropical genus Coprophanaeus Olsoufieff (1924), as classified here, comprises 38 species distributed among three subgenera (Megaphanaeus Olsoufieff, Metallophanaeus Olsoufieff, and Coprophanaeus s. str. ) and eight species groups. Keys presented help to identify supraspecific and species taxa, all of which are illustrated and diagnosed. Lectotypes are designated for Phanaeus ignecinctus Felsche and Phanaeus ohausi Felsche. Coprophanaeus corythus (Harold), formerly regarded as a subspecies of C. telamon (Erichson), assumes species status. Coprophanaeus magnoi Arnaud, described as a subspecies of C. milon (Blanchard), is raised to species status. New taxonomic interpretations result in 10 new subjective synonymies (junior synonym listed first): Phanaeus machadoi Pereira and d’Andretta = Coprophanaeus saphirinus (Perty); Phanaeus costatus Olsoufieff = Coprophanaeus cyanescens (Olsoufieff); Phanaeus worontzowi Pessôa and Lane = Coprophanaeus cyanescens (Olsoufieff); Coprophanaeus kohlmanni Arnaud = Coprophanaeus morenoi Arnaud; Coprophanaeus pluto nogueirai Arnaud = Coprophanaeus pluto (Harold); Coprophanaeus edmondsi Arnaud = Coprophanaeus conocephalus (Olsoufieff); Coprophanaeus uhleri Malý and Pokorný = Coprophanaeus chiriquensis (Olsoufieff); Coprophanaeus henryi Malý and Pokorný = Coprophanaeus gilli Arnaud; Phanaeus perseus Harold = Coprophanaeus corythus (Harold); Coprophanaeus telamon nevinsoni Arnaud and Gámez = Coprophanaeus corythus; and Coprophanaeus florenti Arnaud = Coprophanaeus ohausi (Felsche). The status of the following names remains unresolved: Phanaeus strandi Balthasar; Coprophanaeus rigoutorum Arnaud; C. terrali Arnaud; C. lichyi Arnaud; C. lecromi Arnaud; C. larseni Arnaud; and C. vazdemeloi Arnaud.