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The need for population checks in any country cannot be over-emphasized. This need becomes very important in a country like Nigeria where people depend on speculations for information in all spheres of life. It was reported from the last census that the population of Nigeria is 167 million. This number is alarming in a country which depends on one source of income. The causes of over-population in the country are identified as, cultural beliefs, lack of sex and population education, religious beliefs etc. To avoid the side effects of over-population, which among others are ; mass poverty, increased death rate, unemployment, it becomes eminent that some measures should be put in place to address this issue. Prominent among them is the role of librarians in collecting and disseminating information on population control to the masses. Problems that may impede the execution of this task, like lack of funds, lack of information resources, and lack of government’s attention were also discussed in this paper. The paper concludes that if the government pays attention to this project by funding and equipping our libraries, this assignment will be realized. Recommendations were made for improvement in the country’s population management.