Date of this Version
Journal for Multiscale Computational Engineering, 9 (6): 635–659 (2011)
The original peridynamics formulation uses a constant nonlocal region, the horizon, over the entire domain. We propose here adaptive refinement algorithms for the bond-based peridynamic model for solving statics problems in two dimensions that involve a variable horizon size. Adaptive refinement is an essential ingredient in concurrent multiscale modeling, and in peridynamics changing the horizon is directly related to multiscale modeling. We do not use any special conditions for the “coupling” of the large and small horizon regions, in contrast with other multiscale coupling methods like atomistic-to-continuum coupling, which require special conditions at the interface to eliminate ghost forces in equilibrium problems. We formulate, and implement in two dimensions, the peridynamic theory with a variable horizon size and we show convergence results (to the solutions of problems solved via the classical partial differential equations theories of solid mechanics in the limit of the horizon going to zero) for a number of test cases. Our refinement is triggered by the value of the nonlocal strain energy density. We apply the boundary conditions in a manner similar to the way these conditions are enforced in, for example, the finite-element method, only on the nodes on the boundary. This, in addition to the peridynamic material being effectively “softer” near the boundary (the so-called “skin effect”) leads to strain energy concentration zones on the loaded boundaries. Because of this, refinement is also triggered around the loaded boundaries, in contrast to what happens in, for example, adaptive finite-element methods.