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The administration of analogs, both agonists and antagonists, of GnRH and immunization against GnRH have been investigated for their ability to control reproductive function in domestic species. These methods can be used to inhibit the secretion of gonadotropins, the necessary stimulants for steroidogenesis and gametogensis, thereby potentially preventing ovulation and inhibiting spermatogenesis. Induction of infertility in this manner could be used for nonlethal population control of wildlife species. Relatively little research has been done in this area. This chapter reviews relevant studies with domestic species and discusses results from studies with wildlife species.