Date of this Version
P hys. Status Solidi RRL 8 (2014)
Single crystals of thorium dioxide ThO2, grown by the hydrothermal growth technique, have been investigated by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS), inverse photoemission spectroscopy (IPES), and L3, M3, M4, and M5 X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES). The experimental band gap for large single crystals has been determined to be 6 eV to 7 eV, from UPS and IPES, in line with expectations. The combined UPS and IPES, place the Fermi level near the conduction band minimum, making these crystals n-type, with extensive band tailing, suggesting an optical gap in the region of 4.8 eV for excitations from occupied to unoccupied edge states. Hybridization between the Th 6d/5f bands with O 2p is strongly implicated.