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‘‘Because the predominant exposure of cells in humans is to single isolated tracks, a critical question is what effects a single track is capable of producing and with what probabilities.’’ ‘‘Most of the current biophysical models. . . make the clear prediction that a single track can produce virtually all of the detrimental stochastic effects of interest.’’ ‘‘But one model, in particular (the amorphous track model of Katz and coworkers), disagrees fundamentally that a single low LET track has the ability to cause the cellular changes.’’ ‘‘This model leads to very dramatic differences in the predicted risk at low doses. . . ’’ ‘‘Because of the very major implications this would have if true, there may be strong grounds for critical evaluation of the model’’ (1).