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The critical relationship between microstructure and nanostructure of materials and their magnetic properties has been appreciated for decades. Electromagnetic machinery, permanent magnets, and data recording and electronic devices all have seen steady and sometimes spectacular advances over this period. At the present time the most interesting research in magnetism and magnetic materials arises from new developments in structuring materials on the nanometer length scale. This talk will present recent advances and challenges in furthering this work, with particular attention paid to extremely high density magnetic recording films, exchange-coupled high-energy-product permanent-magnet materials, high-temperature permanent-magnet materials, and self-organized and patterned magnetic nanoarrays.