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Although parenting factors have been found to contribute to self-control, little is understood about how experiences of maltreatment affect the development of self-control and whether self-control mediates the relationship between maltreatment and negative social outcomes, especially among homeless individuals. This study examined whether lower parental monitoring, physical abuse, and neglect affected the development of self-control and if self-control mediated the relationship between parenting factors and negative social outcomes among a sample of homeless young adults. Results from path analyses indicated that lower parental monitoring and earlier age at first abuse contributed to less cognitive self-control. The effect of monitoring on criminal behavior was partially mediated by self-control. Independent of self-control, low monitoring, physical abuse, and neglect had direct effects on negative outcomes. Running away, a behavioral indicator of self-control, also had direct effects on negative outcomes.