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A faunal study of the sphinx moths (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae) of Nebraska is presented. An overview of the family and its two subfamilies is given as well as descriptions of the adults and, when known, the larvae. Each of the 20 genera and 32 species is reviewed. The treatment for each species consists of synonymy, a brief diagnosis, distribution in general, Nebraska locality records, temporal distribution, food host plants, and remarks. The remarks include commentary on how to best distinguish the adults and a brief discussion of biology. A short description of genitalic preparation is included. Distribution maps, showing Nebraska county records, are given for all species. Color plates to facilitate identification of the adults and selected larva, a bibliography, and a glossary are included.