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The high electronegativity and small size of the fluorine atom and the high stability of C-F bonds impart interesting properties and applications to fluorine containing polymers. The unique properties of fluoropolymers include high thermal stability, improved chemical resistance, low surface energies, low coefficients of friction, and low dielectric constants. Applications of fluorinated polymers include use as noncorrosive materials, polymer processing aids, chemically resistant and antifouling coatings, as well as interlayer dielectrics. Fluorine-containing polymers can be directly synthesized via polymerization of fluorine-containing monomers or by post-polymerization modification. The latter method can be used to attach fluorinated species, such as perfluoroalkyl groups, onto conventional polymer chains, thereby imparting properties of fluorine-containing polymers into conventional polymers and widening their range of potential applications.