U.S. Department of Defense


Date of this Version



Life Sciences 98 (2014) 113–122


This article is a U.S. government work, and is not subject to copyright in the United States.


Aims: The objectives of this study were to determine the cytokine induction by delta tocotrienol (DT3, a promising radiation countermeasure) and to investigate the role of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in its radioprotective efficacy against ionizing radiation in mice. Main methods: Multiplex Luminex was used to analyze cytokines induced by DT3 and other tocols (gammatocotrienol and tocopherol succinate) in CD2F1 mice. Mice were injected with an optimal dose of DT3 and a G-CSF antibody, and their 30-day survival against cobalt-60 gamma-irradiation was monitored. The neutralization of G-CSF by the administration of a G-CSF-specific antibody in DT3-injected mice was investigated by multiplex Luminex. Key findings: Our data demonstrate that DT3 induced high levels of various cytokines comparable to other tocols being developed as radiation countermeasures. DT3 significantly protected mice against ionizing radiation, and the administration of a G-CSF neutralizing antibody to DT3-treated animals resulted in the complete abrogation of DT3's radioprotective efficacy and neutralization of G-CSF in peripheral blood. Significance: Our study findings suggest that G-CSF induced by DT3mediates its radioprotective efficacy against ionizing radiation in mice.