U.S. Department of Defense


Date of this Version



Published in Peptides 32 (2011) 1964–1971; doi:10.1016/j.peptides.2011.07.013


C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) is a member of the small family of natriuretic peptides that also includes atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain, or B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP). Unlike them, it performs its major functions in an autocrine or paracrine manner. Those functions, mediated through binding to the membrane guanylyl cyclase natriuretic peptide receptor B (NPR-B), or by signaling through the non-enzyme natriuretic peptide receptor C (NPR-C), include the regulation of endochondral ossification, reproduction, nervous system development, and the maintenance of cardiovascular health. To date, the regulation of CNP gene expression has not received the attention that has been paid to regulation of the ANP and BNP genes. CNP expression in vitro is regulated by TGF-β and receptor tyrosine kinase growth factors in a cell/tissue-specific and sometimes species-specific manner. Expression of CNP in vivo is altered in diseased organs and tissues, including atherosclerotic vessels, and the myocardium of failing hearts. Analysis of the human CNP gene has led to the identification of a number of regulatory sites in the proximal promoter, including a GC-rich region approximately 50 base pairs downstream of the Tata box, and shown to be a binding site for several putative regulatory proteins, including transforming growth factor clone 22 domain 1 (TSC22D1) and a serine threonine kinase (STK16). The purpose of this review is to summarize the current literature on the regulation of CNP expression, emphasizing in particular the putative regulatory elements in the CNP gene and the potential DNA-binding proteins that associate with them.