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Iridoviruses (IVs) are classified into five genera: Iridovirus and Chloriridovirus, whose members infect invertebrates, and Ranavirus, Lymphocystivirus, and Megalocytivirus, whose members infect vertebrates. Until now, Chloriridovirus was the only IV genus for which a representative and complete genomic sequence was not available. Here, we report the genome sequence and comparative analysis of a field isolate of Invertebrate iridescent virus type 3 (IIV-3), also known as mosquito iridescent virus, currently the sole member of the genus Chloriridovirus. Approximately 20% of the 190-kbp IIV-3 genome was repetitive DNA, with DNA repeats localized in 15 apparently noncoding regions. Of the 126 predicted IIV-3 genes, 27 had homologues in all currently sequenced IVs, suggesting a genetic core for the family Iridoviridae. Fifty-two IIV-3 genes, including those encoding DNA topoisomerase II, NAD-dependent DNA ligase, SF1 helicase, IAP, and BRO protein, are present in IIV-6 (Chilo iridescent virus, prototype species of the genus Iridovirus) but not in vertebrate IVs, likely reflecting distinct evolutionary histories for vertebrate and invertebrate IVs and potentially indicative of genes that function in aspects of virus-invertebrate host interactions. Thirty-three IIV-3 genes lack homologues in other IVs. Most of these encode proteins of unknown function but also encode IIV3-053L, a protein with similarity to DNA-dependent RNA polymerase subunit 7; IIV3-044L, a putative serine/threonine protein kinase; and IIV3-080R, a protein with similarity to poxvirus MutT-like proteins. The absence of genes present in other IVs, including IIV-6; the lack of obvious colinearity with any sequenced IV; the low levels of amino acid identity of predicted proteins to IV homologues; and phylogenetic analyses of conserved proteins indicate that IIV-3 is distantly related to other IV genera.