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With increased concern over the effects of pesticides on ecosystems end non-target species, the use of many toxic materials has either been banned or severely restricted. Consequently, a more ecological approach to vole damage is necessary to develop sounder methods of control. Distribution of pine voles (Microtus pinetorum), both seasonally end geographically, indicates that this species is not readily adaptable to 8 wide range of habitat types or conditions. If there are certain factors limiting the occurrence end abundance of pine voles, end they can be detected, we may be able to exploit this knowledge to adversely affect vole populations by manipulating their habitat.
The objectives of this study were to: (1) quantitatively measure both environmental parameters and control methods influencing the distribution and amount of damage done by pine and meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus) in southern New England apple orchards, end (2) measure parameters which may determine infra-orchard distribution of the 2 species.