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I believe this audience is already well aware of the dilemma in New York State. We have suffered extensive damage from orchard mice over the past three years in New York with some growers losing their entire operation. The pine vole, Pitymys pinetorum, has assumed an Important role as an orchard pest and in eastern New York easily surpasses the related meadow vole, Microtus pennsylvanicus as a significant orchard pest. A recent grower-funded economic survey, initiated by this Unit, and reported in a paper by Pearson and Forsney (1978) points up the severity of losses thru reduced quality and quantity of the apple crop.