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The nations of East Africa consist of Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique and Zimbabwe. They encompass a widely varied topography, from coral strands to snow-capped mountains, rain forests to deserts, and tropical to temperate. In all these areas where soil and rainfall patterns permit, agricultural crops are grown. For the most part farming is of a subsistence nature being small single family plots. These farms make up to 90% of the farming in most of the East African nations. There are large farms in Kenya and Zimbabwe generally confined to the temperate uplands. Elsewhere there are large government agricultural schemes growing food crops like rice and sugar cane. In Tanzania there are very large sisal plantations. Almost all of the nations of East Africa have chronic food shortages save Malawi and Zimbabwe. This is due to declining food production and a rapid annual increase in the human population. This has made it necessary for many of these nations to import food or to become dependent on donated foods. The purchase of foods has slowed the development of these nations as scarce foreign exchange has to be used for this purpose instead of buying machines, supplies, and technology necessary for development.