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Current limitations on pesticides for managing prairie dog populations underscore the need for additional research on candidate compounds. I conducted this study to determine the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of two registered burrow fumigants (aluminum phosphide and gas cartridges) and three unregistered burrow fumigants (methyl bromide, chloropicrin, and a methyl bromide/chloropicrin mixture) for managing black-tailed prairie dogs. All five fumigants reduced burrow activity 94% to 97%, as measured by a plugged burrow technique. Total costs for materials and labor for the registered products, excluding application equipment, were nearly twice ($30.00 to $38.50) the cost of the unregistered fumigants ($15.25 to $16.25).