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The Denver Wildlife Research Center has been investigating methods to combat starling (Sturnus vulgaris) problems at livestock feeding areas since 1960. A variety of chemicals, baits, and methods of bait placement have been tested. This paper summarizes these investigations.
CHEMICALS TESTED About 500 chemicals have been screened for toxic and stupefacient effects on starlings. Although several chemicals have been found that immobilize starlings in the laboratory, they have been largely ineffective in the field; most starlings regurgitate the treated baits, and seldom have substantial numbers been affected. Of the toxicants screened, four compounds, TEPP, DRC-632, DRC-1327, and DRC-1339, have shown enough activity as control agents for starlings to warrant intensive investigation in the laboratory and the field.