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The most serious known rodent pests in agricultural irrigated land are: Rattus rattus, Arvicanthis niloticus and Acomys sp. Occasionally there are rodent outbreaks in agricultural plantations. The changing agro-ecosystem in the present and future agricultural plantations is expected to affect the status of the following potential rodent pest species: Spalax ehrenbergi aegyptiacus, Nesokia indica, Jaculus orientalis, and Gerbillus gerbillus gerbillus. Basic studies are needed to quantify damage including water loss, which is caused by rodents, forecast of rodent outbreaks, and integrated control of rodents in agricultural projects.