Date of this Version
A small (30-ml 1080 solution) livestock protection (LP) collar has been registered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to help control coyote (Canis latrans) predation on sheep and goats. However, the small collar does not adequately cover the throats of large livestock. We pen tested large (60-ml 1080 solution) LP collars on large sheep for effectiveness against coyotes and determined sodium fluoroacetate (FAC) residues in coyotes and sheep to estimate nontarget hazards. The large collar was effective. In 5 tests, all 5 collars were punctured and all attacking coyotes died. Time to death averaged 2.5 h. Coyotes received more toxicant from large collars and had higher FAC residues in stomach contents and muscle compared to coyotes killed by small collars. Despite usually higher FAC residues from large LP collars, our assessment indicated minimal primary and secondary hazard to nontarget species.