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Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) were immobilized with one of the following drug combinations: ketamine/xylazine (n = 22), ketamine/ promazine (n = 35), ketamine/midazolam (n = 13), or tiletamine/zolazepam (n = 22). Foxes given ketamine/xylazine had the shortest induction and longest recovery times relative to other drug combinations, whereas foxes given ketamine/midazolam had the longest induction times. Recommended doses for the various combinations are given. Foxes given ketamine/xylazine were given either 0.1, 0.2, 0.4 mg/kg yohimbine, or saline 40 mm after anesthetic induction. Administration of yohimbine significantly shortened arousal and recovery times relative to control values (P < 0.001).